Wide-spread genomic disorganization that may occur at a later stage of

Wide-spread genomic disorganization that may occur at a later stage of tumour progression. In the current work, we are considering advanced ovarian cancer with the aim of examining the importance of broad aberrations on survival and for this purpose TAI appears as a suitable way of obtaining numerical quantifications to be used in statistical analysis. Genomic instability causes disturbed mitoses, segregation, and spindle assembly (see reviews by [44?6]). In ovarian cancer, as in other cancer types, genomic instability and copy number alterations have been associated 11967625 with poor prognosis. However, recent publications have stated that high levels of genomic instability may be beneficial for the survival and prognosis of patients in some tumour types [28?0]. Furthermore, elevating the frequency of genomic instability has been proposed as a strategy to kill cancer cells [26]. It is thus possible that the initial growth advantage of cancer cells, based on the transforming effect of genomic instability, becomes a net disadvantage for the cancer cells, when the wellorganized regulatory system is devastated. The capability for DNA repair may be reduced, leading to an increased sensitivity to DNA damaging agents, including chemotherapeutic drugs, such as cisplatin (see INCB039110 review by [47]). However, most patients are usually treated with adjuvant chemotherapy making it difficult to determine whether the observed association of genomic instability to patient survival is a result of intrinsically less fit cancer cells or the inability of the tumour cells to repair DNA damages caused by chemotherapeutic drugs. Thus, it is an interesting observation that in the Norwegian cohort the patients with a high degree of genomic instability showed a significantly better response to platinum-based chemotherapy. SOC patients with germline mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 are more sensitive to chemotherapy and have improved survival [39,41,42]. In addition, an even higher fraction of ovarian cancer patients have somatic aberrations in the BRCA genes or the BRCApathway, characterising the phenotype called BRCA-ness [48]. A number of patients (n 1655472 = 35) in the Australian cohort were analysed for germline BRCA-mutations. No significant difference in theGenomic Instability in Ovarian CancerTAI-index was observed between the BRCA-mutated samples and others, a finding that is consistent with the TCGA analysis of BRCA1/2 mutation and ploidy in a large series of SOC [39,41,42]. Germline status may only be represented in a fraction of the total Homatropine methobromide site homologous recombination dysfunction observed in the entire cohort, therefore making it difficult to associate homologous recombination deficiency with the extent of genomic aberration in tumours [7]. Precise delineation of the negative and positive effects of genomic instability on cancer cells is of potentially great importance for tumour classification, survival prediction, and individualized therapy [49]. However, the mechanisms of genomic instability transforming the initial advantageous effects on cancer cell survival into disadvantageous outcome are still unknown, likewise, how these mechanisms have potential influence on drug efficiency. Further studies, including other cancer types, are necessary to validate and refine the presented findings before the biological and clinical significance of genomic instability may be determined.Table S2 Additional clinical data for the Australiancohort. (XLSX)Abstract S1 Abstract in German.(PDF)A.Wide-spread genomic disorganization that may occur at a later stage of tumour progression. In the current work, we are considering advanced ovarian cancer with the aim of examining the importance of broad aberrations on survival and for this purpose TAI appears as a suitable way of obtaining numerical quantifications to be used in statistical analysis. Genomic instability causes disturbed mitoses, segregation, and spindle assembly (see reviews by [44?6]). In ovarian cancer, as in other cancer types, genomic instability and copy number alterations have been associated 11967625 with poor prognosis. However, recent publications have stated that high levels of genomic instability may be beneficial for the survival and prognosis of patients in some tumour types [28?0]. Furthermore, elevating the frequency of genomic instability has been proposed as a strategy to kill cancer cells [26]. It is thus possible that the initial growth advantage of cancer cells, based on the transforming effect of genomic instability, becomes a net disadvantage for the cancer cells, when the wellorganized regulatory system is devastated. The capability for DNA repair may be reduced, leading to an increased sensitivity to DNA damaging agents, including chemotherapeutic drugs, such as cisplatin (see review by [47]). However, most patients are usually treated with adjuvant chemotherapy making it difficult to determine whether the observed association of genomic instability to patient survival is a result of intrinsically less fit cancer cells or the inability of the tumour cells to repair DNA damages caused by chemotherapeutic drugs. Thus, it is an interesting observation that in the Norwegian cohort the patients with a high degree of genomic instability showed a significantly better response to platinum-based chemotherapy. SOC patients with germline mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 are more sensitive to chemotherapy and have improved survival [39,41,42]. In addition, an even higher fraction of ovarian cancer patients have somatic aberrations in the BRCA genes or the BRCApathway, characterising the phenotype called BRCA-ness [48]. A number of patients (n 1655472 = 35) in the Australian cohort were analysed for germline BRCA-mutations. No significant difference in theGenomic Instability in Ovarian CancerTAI-index was observed between the BRCA-mutated samples and others, a finding that is consistent with the TCGA analysis of BRCA1/2 mutation and ploidy in a large series of SOC [39,41,42]. Germline status may only be represented in a fraction of the total homologous recombination dysfunction observed in the entire cohort, therefore making it difficult to associate homologous recombination deficiency with the extent of genomic aberration in tumours [7]. Precise delineation of the negative and positive effects of genomic instability on cancer cells is of potentially great importance for tumour classification, survival prediction, and individualized therapy [49]. However, the mechanisms of genomic instability transforming the initial advantageous effects on cancer cell survival into disadvantageous outcome are still unknown, likewise, how these mechanisms have potential influence on drug efficiency. Further studies, including other cancer types, are necessary to validate and refine the presented findings before the biological and clinical significance of genomic instability may be determined.Table S2 Additional clinical data for the Australiancohort. (XLSX)Abstract S1 Abstract in German.(PDF)A.

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