Iability [8?]. Based on the sequence heterogeneity of the genome, HCV is

Iability [8?]. Based on the sequence heterogeneity of the genome, HCV is MedChemExpress 58-49-1 classified into six major genotypes and ,100 subtypes. These six genotypes of HCV differ in their pathogenicity, efficiency of translation/replication and responsiveness to antiviral therapy. Genotypes 1 and 2 are the major types observed in Japan, Europe, North America and South-East Asia respectively. Type 4 has been found in Central Africa, Middle East and Egypt, type 5 is found in South Africa and type 6 in South-East Asia [16]. Interestingly, the entire gene sequence of HCV genome shows .30 divergence at the nucleotide level across all the genotypes [16]. Unlike in the other parts of the world, genotype 3 has been found to be predominant in India and infects 1 of the total population, followed by genotype 1 [17]. Although a detailed analysis of the viral genomic organization has led to the identification of various genetic elements and the establishment of subgenomic replicons, the study of viral attachment and entry is still not studied completely due to theMonoclonal Antibodies Inhibiting HCV InfectionFigure 1. Characterization of HCV-LPs. (A) HCV-LPs corresponding to 25331948 genotypes 3a and 1b were harvested on 4th day post infection and purified as described in Materials and Methods. HCV-LPs were tested with different concentrations of anti-HCV-E1E2 antibody using ELISA. (B) Transmission electron microscopy of HCV-LPs of 1b and 3a as indicated. Scale bar: 200 nm for genotype 1b and 100 nm of genotype 3a; magnification: 10,000X. (Inset shows a single virus particle with 20,0006 magnification). doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0053619.ginability of the virus to propagate efficiently in cell culture and the lack of suitable animal model for the virus. PS 1145 manufacturer Several groups have described the generation of HCV-like particles (HCV-LPs) in insect cells using a recombinant baculovirus containing the cDNA of the HCV structural proteins core, E1 and E2 [18?3]. In contrast to individually expressed envelope glycoproteins, the HCV structural proteins have been shown toassemble into enveloped HCV-LPs with morphological, biophysical, and antigenic properties similar to those of putative virions isolated from HCV-infected humans [18?9,24?5]. They may, therefore, interact with anti-HCV antibodies directed against HCV envelope proteins that may represent neutralizing epitopes. Recent studies have demonstrated that HCV-LPs interact with defined human cell lines and hepatocytes similar to viral particlesTable 1. Reactivities and epitope mapping of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against HCV-LPs of genotypes 3a and 1b.mAb G2C7 E8G9 H1H10 D2H3 E1BEpitopic region on E2 ND aa 555?99 ND aa 596?99 NDWB 2 ++ 2 +ELISA/Dotblot ++ ++ + + +Titer (HCV-LP 3a) Beyond 1024 Between 256 and 512 Between 8 and 16 Between 64 and 128Titer (HCV-LP 1b) Beyond 1024 256 Between 8 and 16 Between 128 and 256doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0053619.tMonoclonal Antibodies Inhibiting HCV Infectionisolated from human serum. The interaction of HCV-LPs with permissive cell lines therefore represents a novel model system for the study of viral binding and entry and consecutively inhibition of entry into permissive cells [21,23,25?7]. In the present study, we have generated HCV-LPs comprising of core-E1-E2 regions of genotypes 1b and 3a using the baculovirus expression system and these HCV-LPs have been used to produce mouse monoclonal antibodies. These monoclonal antibodies were characterized for their ability to inhibit VLP attachment t.Iability [8?]. Based on the sequence heterogeneity of the genome, HCV is classified into six major genotypes and ,100 subtypes. These six genotypes of HCV differ in their pathogenicity, efficiency of translation/replication and responsiveness to antiviral therapy. Genotypes 1 and 2 are the major types observed in Japan, Europe, North America and South-East Asia respectively. Type 4 has been found in Central Africa, Middle East and Egypt, type 5 is found in South Africa and type 6 in South-East Asia [16]. Interestingly, the entire gene sequence of HCV genome shows .30 divergence at the nucleotide level across all the genotypes [16]. Unlike in the other parts of the world, genotype 3 has been found to be predominant in India and infects 1 of the total population, followed by genotype 1 [17]. Although a detailed analysis of the viral genomic organization has led to the identification of various genetic elements and the establishment of subgenomic replicons, the study of viral attachment and entry is still not studied completely due to theMonoclonal Antibodies Inhibiting HCV InfectionFigure 1. Characterization of HCV-LPs. (A) HCV-LPs corresponding to 25331948 genotypes 3a and 1b were harvested on 4th day post infection and purified as described in Materials and Methods. HCV-LPs were tested with different concentrations of anti-HCV-E1E2 antibody using ELISA. (B) Transmission electron microscopy of HCV-LPs of 1b and 3a as indicated. Scale bar: 200 nm for genotype 1b and 100 nm of genotype 3a; magnification: 10,000X. (Inset shows a single virus particle with 20,0006 magnification). doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0053619.ginability of the virus to propagate efficiently in cell culture and the lack of suitable animal model for the virus. Several groups have described the generation of HCV-like particles (HCV-LPs) in insect cells using a recombinant baculovirus containing the cDNA of the HCV structural proteins core, E1 and E2 [18?3]. In contrast to individually expressed envelope glycoproteins, the HCV structural proteins have been shown toassemble into enveloped HCV-LPs with morphological, biophysical, and antigenic properties similar to those of putative virions isolated from HCV-infected humans [18?9,24?5]. They may, therefore, interact with anti-HCV antibodies directed against HCV envelope proteins that may represent neutralizing epitopes. Recent studies have demonstrated that HCV-LPs interact with defined human cell lines and hepatocytes similar to viral particlesTable 1. Reactivities and epitope mapping of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against HCV-LPs of genotypes 3a and 1b.mAb G2C7 E8G9 H1H10 D2H3 E1BEpitopic region on E2 ND aa 555?99 ND aa 596?99 NDWB 2 ++ 2 +ELISA/Dotblot ++ ++ + + +Titer (HCV-LP 3a) Beyond 1024 Between 256 and 512 Between 8 and 16 Between 64 and 128Titer (HCV-LP 1b) Beyond 1024 256 Between 8 and 16 Between 128 and 256doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0053619.tMonoclonal Antibodies Inhibiting HCV Infectionisolated from human serum. The interaction of HCV-LPs with permissive cell lines therefore represents a novel model system for the study of viral binding and entry and consecutively inhibition of entry into permissive cells [21,23,25?7]. In the present study, we have generated HCV-LPs comprising of core-E1-E2 regions of genotypes 1b and 3a using the baculovirus expression system and these HCV-LPs have been used to produce mouse monoclonal antibodies. These monoclonal antibodies were characterized for their ability to inhibit VLP attachment t.

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