E of apoptotic cells [15]. Studies of the mechanism of apoptotic cell

E of apoptotic cells [15]. Studies of the mechanism of apoptotic cell clearance by transfected HEK-293TMERTK Interactions with SH2-Domain Proteinscells suggest that MERTK signaling involves cross-talk with avb5 integrin, resulting in activation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) via SRC family non-receptor tyrosine kinases (SFKs) [16]. In both macrophages and the RPE, proteolytic cleavage of MERTK has been proposed to act in a negative feedback loop to limit phagocytic particle binding by avb5 integrin [16,17]. In addition, MERTK has been shown to drive the redistribution of myosin II that is essential for the normal phagocytic function of the RPE, potentially by regulating the formation or closure of the phagocytic cup [18]. A central step in the MERTK signaling mechanism is the activation of receptor tyrosine kinase activity resulting in transautophosphorylation. Three tyrosine residues, Y-749, Y-753, and Y-754 present within the activation loop of the (human) MERTKkinase domain have been identified as sites of autophosphorylation [19]. Receptor tyrosine phosphorylation serves to generate Camicinal price docking sites for signaling molecules, including GSK2334470 price Src-homology 2 (SH2) domain proteins that function as enzymes and adapter proteins [20]. Previous studies of MERTK-associated proteins in myeloid cells identified interactions with multiple SH2-domain proteins [21,22,23]. The fundamental role of SH2-domain proteins in MERTK-downstream signaling suggests that they play an essential role in the mechanism of RPE phagocytosis. In the present study, analysis of expression, protein interactions, and functional assays have been used to identify SH2-domain proteins in the RPE with the potential to signal downstream of MERTK and upstream of cellular remodeling. The findings suggest that MERTK interacts with multiple signaling partners in the RPE, including SH2-domain proteins that regulate cytoskeletal rearrangement and membrane movement in other professional phagocytes.(GRB), phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase regulatory subunit alpha (PIK3R1 or P85a), vav proto-oncogenes (VAVs), and SRCfamily kinases (SFKs), as described in detail below.GRBA key role of GRB proteins is their ability to function as adapters for GEF proteins involved in RAS activation of downstream kinases that regulate multiple signaling processes and biological activities, including NF-kB control of inflammation and regulation of motor proteins involved in cellular movement [25,26]. Previous studies in hematopoietic cells identified MERTK interactions with GRB2 [21], pointing to the importance of defining the role of GRB proteins in RPE phagocytosis. In the current study, RT-PCR was used to evaluate expression in mouse RPE/choroid, retina, brain, and liver. Transcripts encoding Grb2 were seen at relatively high levels in RPE/choroid when compared to levels present in retina, brain, and liver (Figure 1A). In contrast, transcripts encoding the Grb7 isoform were low in RPE/choroid and high in liver, whereas transcripts encoding the Grb10 isoform were high in RPE/choroid and retina, and low in liver. Assays of potential MERTK interactions using Ni2+-NTA pull downs of 6xHis-rMERTK571?99 incubated with rSH2-domain fusion proteins showed strong recovery of the recombinant GRB2 protein (Figure 1B), which exceeded that of recombinant GRB7 and GRB10, suggesting specificity in the interactions of MERTK with GRB isoforms. Analysis of endogenous protein expression on western blots showed strong Grb2 immunoreactivi.E of apoptotic cells [15]. Studies of the mechanism of apoptotic cell clearance by transfected HEK-293TMERTK Interactions with SH2-Domain Proteinscells suggest that MERTK signaling involves cross-talk with avb5 integrin, resulting in activation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) via SRC family non-receptor tyrosine kinases (SFKs) [16]. In both macrophages and the RPE, proteolytic cleavage of MERTK has been proposed to act in a negative feedback loop to limit phagocytic particle binding by avb5 integrin [16,17]. In addition, MERTK has been shown to drive the redistribution of myosin II that is essential for the normal phagocytic function of the RPE, potentially by regulating the formation or closure of the phagocytic cup [18]. A central step in the MERTK signaling mechanism is the activation of receptor tyrosine kinase activity resulting in transautophosphorylation. Three tyrosine residues, Y-749, Y-753, and Y-754 present within the activation loop of the (human) MERTKkinase domain have been identified as sites of autophosphorylation [19]. Receptor tyrosine phosphorylation serves to generate docking sites for signaling molecules, including Src-homology 2 (SH2) domain proteins that function as enzymes and adapter proteins [20]. Previous studies of MERTK-associated proteins in myeloid cells identified interactions with multiple SH2-domain proteins [21,22,23]. The fundamental role of SH2-domain proteins in MERTK-downstream signaling suggests that they play an essential role in the mechanism of RPE phagocytosis. In the present study, analysis of expression, protein interactions, and functional assays have been used to identify SH2-domain proteins in the RPE with the potential to signal downstream of MERTK and upstream of cellular remodeling. The findings suggest that MERTK interacts with multiple signaling partners in the RPE, including SH2-domain proteins that regulate cytoskeletal rearrangement and membrane movement in other professional phagocytes.(GRB), phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase regulatory subunit alpha (PIK3R1 or P85a), vav proto-oncogenes (VAVs), and SRCfamily kinases (SFKs), as described in detail below.GRBA key role of GRB proteins is their ability to function as adapters for GEF proteins involved in RAS activation of downstream kinases that regulate multiple signaling processes and biological activities, including NF-kB control of inflammation and regulation of motor proteins involved in cellular movement [25,26]. Previous studies in hematopoietic cells identified MERTK interactions with GRB2 [21], pointing to the importance of defining the role of GRB proteins in RPE phagocytosis. In the current study, RT-PCR was used to evaluate expression in mouse RPE/choroid, retina, brain, and liver. Transcripts encoding Grb2 were seen at relatively high levels in RPE/choroid when compared to levels present in retina, brain, and liver (Figure 1A). In contrast, transcripts encoding the Grb7 isoform were low in RPE/choroid and high in liver, whereas transcripts encoding the Grb10 isoform were high in RPE/choroid and retina, and low in liver. Assays of potential MERTK interactions using Ni2+-NTA pull downs of 6xHis-rMERTK571?99 incubated with rSH2-domain fusion proteins showed strong recovery of the recombinant GRB2 protein (Figure 1B), which exceeded that of recombinant GRB7 and GRB10, suggesting specificity in the interactions of MERTK with GRB isoforms. Analysis of endogenous protein expression on western blots showed strong Grb2 immunoreactivi.

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