Ried out in the Laboratory of Cognitive Science and Immersive Virtual
Ried out in the Laboratory of Cognitive Science and Immersive Virtual Reality, Department of Psychology, Second University of Naples, Caserta (Italy). The IVR equipment is installed within a rectangular room (5 m64 m63 m) and involves the PubMed ID:https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24367588 3D Vizard Virtual Reality Toolkit Devices for Integrated VR Setups and Position Tracking Method. Virtual stimuli had been presented by means of the nVisor SX (NVIS, USA) head mounted show (HMD) with two displays delivering stereoscopic depth (approximately 30 times a sec.). The stereoscopic pictures run at 2806024 resolution, refreshed at 60 Hz. The virtual situation spanned 60 degrees horizontally by 38 degrees vertically. Graphics card applied Vizard softwares (WorldViz, USA). Head orientation was tracked by a threeaxis orientation sensor (InertiaCube3; Intersense, USA) and head position by a passive optical tracking system (Precision Position Tracker, PPTH4; WorldViz, USA). Graphics displayed inside the HMD had been updated around the basis of sensed position and orientation of participant’s head. Furthermore, the Data Glove, a glove equipped with four tactilepressures sensors giving the sense of hand movement, was also applied. Graphics modeling had been produced by 3D Google Sketch Up 7.0 freesoftware. The position and orientation tracking systems allowed participants to realistically encounter dynamic and stereoscopic visuomotor input as if they had been in front of natural stimuli.Virtual StimuliVirtual atmosphere. The virtual room measured three m62.4 m63 m. It consisted of green walls, white ceiling and grey floor. Around the floor, a buy Tunicamycin dashed white line from the participants’ starting position until the end with the virtual room was traced.Reaching and Comfort Distance in Virtual Social InteractionsParticipants could move forwardbackward devoid of colliding with any actual obstacle [26]. Virtual agents. Pilot studies were performed to choose the avatars most comparable to human beings (rated on a 5point scale). The selected human avatars represented male and female adults aged about 30 years and perceived as representation of Italian citizens. As shown in Figure , male and female avatars kept their arms extended along the physique. An anthropomorphic robot and also a cylinder had been also employed (see Figure ). The height of the virtual stimuli was 75 cm. The gaze of human avatars and anthropomorphic robot was kept hunting straight ahead throughout the experimental sessions and their facial expression was neutral [26]. Due to the fact distance can be influenced by familiar size in impoverished visual environments [33], inside a handle experiment 20 participants (half females) judged the height of every virtual stimulus while positioned at three counterbalanced positions from them (.five m, 2 m and 3 m). The results showed that all virtual stimuli had been perceived with all the similar height independently in the distance in the perceiver (F,).ProcedureThe experimenter introduced participants for the IVR devices to produce them acquainted with the virtual world. All participants received written directions in regards to the process that were then orally repeated by the experimenter. Then, there was a familiarization phase. Participants wore the HMD and also the Data Glove and have been allowed to explore freely the virtual area. Data Glove was used to produce participants perceive their arm totally stretched within the virtual scene. By means of the HMD, participants had been completely immersed within the virtual room where they could see the virtual stimuli and could make comprehensive exploratory movements. They could not see any part of th.