tein and/or its receptor binding domain NP protein N protein Viral receptor binding domain (RBD) Receptor binding domain Principle Investigators Davide C, Katja F, Martina B, et al. Li Z, Xingsu G, Binyang Z, et al. Yaoqing C, Bing H, Shuning L, et al. Lei C, Tengsen G, Min D, et al. Xilin W, Zhiwei W.CN 112661841 AEpitope S1-RBD and S1-NTDLei Y, Yingfen W, Wenjing G, et al.CN 112625136 A 20210409 CN 112574300 A 20210330 CN 112521496 A 20210319 CN 112409488 A 20210226 CN 112225806 A 20210115 CN 112210004 A 20210112 CN 112175073 A 20210105 CN 112175071 A 20210105 CN 112159469 ATwo epitopes of SARS-CoV-2 spike protein Spike protein Spike protein RBD domain Human ACE2 Spike RBD protein Spike protein Spike protein Spike protein Spike S1-RBDGuojun L, Chanjuan L, Junbin S, et al. Xiaochun W, and Junxin L. Ke D, Zhaowei G, Xi W, et al. Chunhe W, Yuning C, Yili C, et al. Yafeng L. Yang W, Xuefeng N, Chunlin W, et al. Jinghe H, Fan W, Mei L, et al. Jingui Y, Lei Z, Lianjun M, et al. Jinghe H, Fan W, Mei L, et al.Note: SARS CoV-2–severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2; RBD–Receptor binding domain; S, N, proteins–Spike, Nucleocapsid, proteins; ACE2–Angiotensin converting enzyme-2.Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22,ten of5. Discussion Antibodies are created by the immune system in response to infection. Monoclonal antibodies are created in the laboratory and are developed to mimic and enhance the natural course of action of immunity. These agents are increasingly getting tested and employed against cancer and a variety of forms of infection [10]. Monoclonal antibodies are intended to target a particular infection approach, and this makes them distinct from other chemotherapy drugs. Monoclonal antibodies are manufactured by exposing a viral element to white blood cells and then the isolated proteins are mass created by a cloning process in the laboratory [56]. At the moment, two significant categories of MAbs are being tested for COVID-19. The very first category particularly target and neutralize the virus (casirivimab, imdevimab, bamlanivimab) as well as the second group of MAbs acts around the immunological program and decreases inflammatory situations following infection (tocilizumab, sarilumab and siltuximab) [13]. Patents and patenting strategies for biotechnological mGluR1 Accession products for example monoclonal antibodies are cumbersome. A lot of the time, these complicated biological molecules require extra than 1 patent to cover each of the aspects in the innovation [57]. Additionally, the novelty in biotechnology originates mostly from a university/public supported/research institution. Patenting such technological advancements for industrial purposes or technology transfer demands numerous legal and procedural problems [58]. The obtainable data indicated that till not too long ago three classes of MAbs have received emergency use authorization. They may be bamlanivimab, casirivimab-imdevimab combination and bamlanivimab-etesevimab mixture [13]. Patent analysis suggested that MAbs tested for the therapy of COVID-19 are manufactured by recombinant DNA technology. The complexity inside the manufacturing method incorporates the production of crude protein by means of cell culture inside a bioreactor, followed by a series of purification steps and lastly the Nav1.4 Formulation sterile filling strategies. The procedure begins in the immunization of laboratory animals including BALB/c [59]. This sensitizes the B lymphocytes against the antigen required for the production of MAbs. Specific B cells are identified, fused and hybridized. Hybrid cells are clon