Ot very uniform. In order to reduce error in the measurement

Ot very uniform. In order to reduce error in the measurement of the tensile strength of a single filament of silk fibroin, each storage type of cooked cocoons was hand-reeled in water at 70uC (Figure 6). The hand-reeled silk fiber is often referred to as raw silk and is, in fact, a partly degummed silk fiber. The raw silks were degummed thoroughly by the three methods described above; neutral soap, SAEW and Na2CO3. Finally, the tensile properties of 50 mm long single filaments of silk fibroin were measured with a testing machine (INSTRON model 3365; Universal Testing Machine, INSTRON, US) to determine maximum load, shift at maximum load and energy at maximum load and the tensile strain at maximum load was calculated.Neutral Soap Degumming MethodA known weight of clean cocoon shells was added into a 0.2 (W/V) neutral soap solution at a ratio of 1:100 (W/V) and heated at 96,98uC for 30 min. The neutral soap solution was removed, replaced with a fresh solution and heated again five times. The degummed silk fibroin was washed with ,40uC deionized water three times and these washings were saved and pooled. The degummed silk fibroin fiber was also washed repeatedly and airdried at 105uC for 2 h. The procedure was done in triplicate and the degumming rate was calculated as described above.Author ContributionsConceived and designed the experiments: Y-QZ T-TC. Performed the experiments: T-TC Y-JW. Analyzed the data: T-TC. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: Y-QZ T-TC. Wrote the paper: T-TC Y-QZ.SAEW Degumming MethodpH 11.50 SAEW was used for degumming cocoons and calculation of 23148522 the degumming rate. For each storage type of drySilk Degumming and the Physical Properties
Gonadal steroids modulate a myriad of male social behaviors that contribute to successful reproduction and survival. In most rodent animal models studied in the lab, the dependence of male sexual behavior (MSB) on gonadal steroids is well documented (reviewed in [1]). However, one of the defining characteristics of MSB is the high variability found among individuals, as striking inter-individual variation in the response to orchidectomy has been well documented in numerous species (reviewed in [2]). There are very few rodent models that provide the opportunity to parse out the non-steroidal mechanisms that regulate MSB [3,4]. One of these models is the B6D2F1 hybrid mouse strain in which ,30 of the males retain the ejaculatory reflex for as many as 25 weeks after orchidectomy (herein after referred to as maters; [5,6]). Hormonal characterization of this hybrid strain has revealed nothing exceptional [7,8]. Thus, Title Loaded From File microarray gene expression analyses of the medial preoptic area (MPOA), an area integral for MSB, were done to provide a first pass look at the geneticunderpinnings of steroid-independent MSB [9]. Over 500 genes were differentially expressed between maters and non-maters. Cross referencing this list with genotype data mined from B6D2F1 recombinant inbred mouse lines led to the identification of a group of genes that were Roteomics. In a proteomics study that compared VSSA and VISA strains associated with neurodegenerative diseases and steroid-independent MSB. Expression of two genes in particular, amyloid beta (A4) precursor protein (APP) and microtubule associated protein tau (MAPT), which are normally associated with Alzheimer’s Disease, was found to be significantly higher in the maters relative to the non-maters [9]. Furthermore, transgenic male mice that overexpressed APP displayed enhanced sexual behavior, demonstrating a ca.Ot very uniform. In order to reduce error in the measurement of the tensile strength of a single filament of silk fibroin, each storage type of cooked cocoons was hand-reeled in water at 70uC (Figure 6). The hand-reeled silk fiber is often referred to as raw silk and is, in fact, a partly degummed silk fiber. The raw silks were degummed thoroughly by the three methods described above; neutral soap, SAEW and Na2CO3. Finally, the tensile properties of 50 mm long single filaments of silk fibroin were measured with a testing machine (INSTRON model 3365; Universal Testing Machine, INSTRON, US) to determine maximum load, shift at maximum load and energy at maximum load and the tensile strain at maximum load was calculated.Neutral Soap Degumming MethodA known weight of clean cocoon shells was added into a 0.2 (W/V) neutral soap solution at a ratio of 1:100 (W/V) and heated at 96,98uC for 30 min. The neutral soap solution was removed, replaced with a fresh solution and heated again five times. The degummed silk fibroin was washed with ,40uC deionized water three times and these washings were saved and pooled. The degummed silk fibroin fiber was also washed repeatedly and airdried at 105uC for 2 h. The procedure was done in triplicate and the degumming rate was calculated as described above.Author ContributionsConceived and designed the experiments: Y-QZ T-TC. Performed the experiments: T-TC Y-JW. Analyzed the data: T-TC. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: Y-QZ T-TC. Wrote the paper: T-TC Y-QZ.SAEW Degumming MethodpH 11.50 SAEW was used for degumming cocoons and calculation of 23148522 the degumming rate. For each storage type of drySilk Degumming and the Physical Properties
Gonadal steroids modulate a myriad of male social behaviors that contribute to successful reproduction and survival. In most rodent animal models studied in the lab, the dependence of male sexual behavior (MSB) on gonadal steroids is well documented (reviewed in [1]). However, one of the defining characteristics of MSB is the high variability found among individuals, as striking inter-individual variation in the response to orchidectomy has been well documented in numerous species (reviewed in [2]). There are very few rodent models that provide the opportunity to parse out the non-steroidal mechanisms that regulate MSB [3,4]. One of these models is the B6D2F1 hybrid mouse strain in which ,30 of the males retain the ejaculatory reflex for as many as 25 weeks after orchidectomy (herein after referred to as maters; [5,6]). Hormonal characterization of this hybrid strain has revealed nothing exceptional [7,8]. Thus, microarray gene expression analyses of the medial preoptic area (MPOA), an area integral for MSB, were done to provide a first pass look at the geneticunderpinnings of steroid-independent MSB [9]. Over 500 genes were differentially expressed between maters and non-maters. Cross referencing this list with genotype data mined from B6D2F1 recombinant inbred mouse lines led to the identification of a group of genes that were associated with neurodegenerative diseases and steroid-independent MSB. Expression of two genes in particular, amyloid beta (A4) precursor protein (APP) and microtubule associated protein tau (MAPT), which are normally associated with Alzheimer’s Disease, was found to be significantly higher in the maters relative to the non-maters [9]. Furthermore, transgenic male mice that overexpressed APP displayed enhanced sexual behavior, demonstrating a ca.

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