Inflammatory effects of Fenofibrate in organ transplant rejection related to the

Inflammatory effects of Fenofibrate in organ transplant rejection related to the inhibition of the IL17 and IFN-c/Th1 responses, both locally in the allograft and systemically in the spleen ofDrug Repositioning Fenofibrate for TransplantationFigure 5. Significant improvement of graft function, graft histology and significant reduction in graft cell infiltration with Fenofibrate treatment. Palpated graft beating in transplanted mice was assessed daily and assigned a beating score (BS). 1655472 Transplanted mice BS were significantly improved when buy Gepotidacin treated with Fenofibrate (FF) compared to non- treated ones (NT) (n = 6, p,0.001; shown are mean BS plus SEM), (a). H E stainings of mice grafts at POD7 revealed decreased cellular infiltrates and histological damage upon Fenofibrate treatment (b). FACS of infiltrating cells from the same grafts showed significantly reduced numbers of infiltrating innate and adaptive immune cells in the Fenofibrate treated mice (*p,0.05, **p,0.01, 2-sided Student T-test, n = 6). Box Plots show median and first and third quartiles of infiltrating cells corrected for total number of infiltrating cells and total graft weight. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0056657.grejecting animals. We could show profound attenuation of graft rejection and most importantly Fenofibrate extended graft survival by 11 days over no-treatment and was almost as buy Gilteritinib efficient as standard immunosuppression. The exact mechanism by which Fenofibrate inhibited the IL17 and the Th1 response in our model is not clear, but our gene expression analyses both in PBMC and in mouse grafts and spleens suggested an effect upstream of IL17, as the IL17 pathway activating genes IL1-b, TGF-b and IL6 were significantly decreased by Fenofibrate. IL6 is known to induce the IL17 pathway promoting the differentiation of IL17 producing T-cells [38], and was also increased in human AR [35,39]. Importantly inhibition of the Th1 response in IL-6 deficient mice had a synergistic effect on attenuating AR [39], similarly to inhibitionof IL-6 in T-bet deficient mice [2], both also leading to decreased IL17. Here, we showed that Fenofibrate treatment of experimental AR resulted in simultaneous inhibition of Th1 response genes and of IL6. Our results further suggest that Fenofibrate also regulates the IL17 pathway independent from the IL17+ T-helper cell specific transcription factors ROR-a and , as these were not significantly reduced in mice treated with Fenofibrate. On the other hand, there was significant down regulation of STAT3 in spleens from mice treated with Fenofibrate. Only very recently, an experimental study of murine in-vitro Th-cell differentiation showed that Fenofibrate inhibited a differentiation of IL17 producing CD4+ T-cells, providing another line of evidence for Fenofibrate on the IL17-pathway [40]. In this study, the authors were able to show a dose response curve on IL17 producing T-Drug Repositioning Fenofibrate for TransplantationDrug Repositioning Fenofibrate for TransplantationFigure 6. Gene Expression Profiles of Fenofibrate Effects in mouse grafts and spleens: significant repression of IL17 and Th1 genes in vivo in spleens and grafts and formation of a single network of direct interactions. PCR of RNA from mice cardiac allografts (5a) and recipient spleens (b) corroborated in vitro findings and further characterized the mechanism of Fenofibrate to regulate the IL17 pathway and Th1 response (c). Gene expression results in mice recipient grafts (a,c) and sple.Inflammatory effects of Fenofibrate in organ transplant rejection related to the inhibition of the IL17 and IFN-c/Th1 responses, both locally in the allograft and systemically in the spleen ofDrug Repositioning Fenofibrate for TransplantationFigure 5. Significant improvement of graft function, graft histology and significant reduction in graft cell infiltration with Fenofibrate treatment. Palpated graft beating in transplanted mice was assessed daily and assigned a beating score (BS). 1655472 Transplanted mice BS were significantly improved when treated with Fenofibrate (FF) compared to non- treated ones (NT) (n = 6, p,0.001; shown are mean BS plus SEM), (a). H E stainings of mice grafts at POD7 revealed decreased cellular infiltrates and histological damage upon Fenofibrate treatment (b). FACS of infiltrating cells from the same grafts showed significantly reduced numbers of infiltrating innate and adaptive immune cells in the Fenofibrate treated mice (*p,0.05, **p,0.01, 2-sided Student T-test, n = 6). Box Plots show median and first and third quartiles of infiltrating cells corrected for total number of infiltrating cells and total graft weight. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0056657.grejecting animals. We could show profound attenuation of graft rejection and most importantly Fenofibrate extended graft survival by 11 days over no-treatment and was almost as efficient as standard immunosuppression. The exact mechanism by which Fenofibrate inhibited the IL17 and the Th1 response in our model is not clear, but our gene expression analyses both in PBMC and in mouse grafts and spleens suggested an effect upstream of IL17, as the IL17 pathway activating genes IL1-b, TGF-b and IL6 were significantly decreased by Fenofibrate. IL6 is known to induce the IL17 pathway promoting the differentiation of IL17 producing T-cells [38], and was also increased in human AR [35,39]. Importantly inhibition of the Th1 response in IL-6 deficient mice had a synergistic effect on attenuating AR [39], similarly to inhibitionof IL-6 in T-bet deficient mice [2], both also leading to decreased IL17. Here, we showed that Fenofibrate treatment of experimental AR resulted in simultaneous inhibition of Th1 response genes and of IL6. Our results further suggest that Fenofibrate also regulates the IL17 pathway independent from the IL17+ T-helper cell specific transcription factors ROR-a and , as these were not significantly reduced in mice treated with Fenofibrate. On the other hand, there was significant down regulation of STAT3 in spleens from mice treated with Fenofibrate. Only very recently, an experimental study of murine in-vitro Th-cell differentiation showed that Fenofibrate inhibited a differentiation of IL17 producing CD4+ T-cells, providing another line of evidence for Fenofibrate on the IL17-pathway [40]. In this study, the authors were able to show a dose response curve on IL17 producing T-Drug Repositioning Fenofibrate for TransplantationDrug Repositioning Fenofibrate for TransplantationFigure 6. Gene Expression Profiles of Fenofibrate Effects in mouse grafts and spleens: significant repression of IL17 and Th1 genes in vivo in spleens and grafts and formation of a single network of direct interactions. PCR of RNA from mice cardiac allografts (5a) and recipient spleens (b) corroborated in vitro findings and further characterized the mechanism of Fenofibrate to regulate the IL17 pathway and Th1 response (c). Gene expression results in mice recipient grafts (a,c) and sple.

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