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marine drugsArticleInfluence of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Intake on Kidney Functions of Rats with Chronic Renal FailureHiroki Muramatsu 1 , Naoe Akimoto 1 , Michio Hashimoto two , Kenji Sugibayashiand Masanori Katakura 1, Laboratory of Nutritional Physiology, Division of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Faculty of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Josai University, Sakado 350-0295, Saitama, Japan; [email protected] (H.M.); [email protected] (N.A.); [email protected] (K.S.) Faculty of Medicine, Shimane University, Izumo 693-8501, Shimane, Japan; [email protected] Correspondence: [email protected]: Muramatsu, H.; Akimoto, N.; Hashimoto, M.; Sugibayashi, K.; Katakura, M. Influence of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Intake on Kidney Functions of Rats with Chronic Renal Failure. Mar. Drugs 2021, 19, 692. ten.3390/md19120692 Academic Editor: Marialuisa Menna Received: 16 November 2021 Accepted: 1 December 2021 Published: 3 DecemberAbstract: Arachidonic acid (ARA), an omega-6 (-6) polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA), is involved in the development and maintenance of renal functions, whereas docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is an omega-3 (-3) PUFA that has anti-inflammatory effects and attenuates nephropathy. On the other hand, their effects around the progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD) remain unknown. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of feeding ARA, DHA, and ARA and DHA-containing diets on rats with 5/6 nephrectomized kidneys. Urine and feces had been collected just about every four weeks, and the kidneys had been collected at 16 weeks after surgery. RGS4 medchemexpress urinary albumin (U-ALB) excretion increased steadily with nephrectomy, however the U-ALB excretion was Adenosine A1 receptor (A1R) Antagonist site attenuated by feeding the rats with an ARA + DHA-containing diet program. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels in the kidneys were lower inside the ARA + DHA group than in the other groups. At four weeks soon after surgery, the lipid peroxide (LPO) levels inside the plasma in the ARA + DHA groups decreased drastically soon after surgery when compared with the handle CKD group, but this did not come about at 16 weeks post-surgery. There was a substantial adverse correlation among LPO levels in the plasma at 4 weeks and creatinine clearance, in addition to a good correlation with urinary albumin levels. These results recommend that the combination of ARA and DHA inhibit the progress of early stage CKD. Keywords and phrases: chronic kidney disease; ARA; DHA; urinary albumin; oxidative stress1. Introduction The kidneys play an important part within the homeostasis of body fluids (the balance of water, salts, and minerals for example sodium, calcium, phosphorus, and potassium inside the blood), regulation of blood pressure, production of red blood cells, and in preserving bones strength. Blood pressure increases with age. Water, salt, and sodium concentration inside the physique increases due